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How vision occurs?

Updated: May 3

Vision occurs when the sensory nerve cells in the retina convert light energy into neuronal signals...



Vision occurs when the sensory nerve cells in the retina convert light energy into neuronal signals and deliver them to the occipital cortex, the specialized site of the brain, through nerve connections. Visual pathways are immature at birth. Over time, both the optic nerve, the retina, and the visual cortex mature. This maturation occurs in the first weeks of life. Maturation of the fovea, the main retinal region where vision occurs, is completed at the age of 4 years. The visual acuity of a newborn is approximately 20/400. The 20/20 visual acuity in adults is about 3 to 5 years old.


Shortly after the baby was born, the primary foci are high-contrast objects or the faces of their parents 20-25 cm from their eyes. When they are about 8 weeks old, they can focus more easily on the faces of their parents. In the following months, eyes can move together and follow the objects at about 3 months of age. In 5th-8th months, eye movements and eye-body coordination skills develop. The ability to correctly perceive the spatial position of the objects and perception of depth are not present at birth. However, in the 5th month, the eyes work together to obtain a three-dimensional image and begin to see the depth. Color vision of the infants is not as sensitive as adults and it is thought that color vision improves from the 5th month.


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